Carboni S, Kelly MS, Hughes AD, Vignier J, Atack T & Migaud H (2014) Evaluation of flow through culture technique for commercial production of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larvae. Aquaculture Research, 45 (4), pp. 768-772. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.12019
First paragraph: Sea urchin gonad is a valuable food product. The world urchin harvest increased from 48 000 tonnes in 1982 to a peak of 120 000 tonnes in 1995 mainly due to the expansion of the Chilean, Canadian and US (Californian and Maine) fisheries (Andrew, Agatsuma, Ballesteros, Bazhin, Creaser, Barnes, Botsford, Bradbury, Campbell, Dixon, Einarsson, Gerring, Hebert, Hunter, Hur, Johnson, Juinio-Menez, Kalvass, Miller, Moreno, Palleiro, Rivas, Robinson, Schroetr, Steneck, Vadas, Woodby & Xiaoqi 2002). However, this was followed by a sharp decline during the late 90′s and first decade of the new millennium (Pearce 2010) mainly due to overfishing. Japan is considered as the main sea urchin consumer in 1995 importing over 6000 metric tonnes of sea urchin gonads with a value of 251 million dollars. By 2007, Japanese imports had increased by 300% (Pearce 2010). The retail price of unprocessed fresh sea urchin in Europe varies greatly depending on the season, country, species and retailer type and can vary between 0.30 and 3 € per individual, whereas the price of processed gonads can reach 150 € kg-1.
Paracentrotus lividus ;
Aquaculture Research: Volume 45, Issue 4