Chambers J, Power KG, Loucks N & Swanson V (2000) Psychometric properties of the Parental Bonding Instrument and its association with psychological distress in a group of incarcerated young offenders in Scotland. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35 (7), pp. 318-325. https://doi.org/10.1007/s001270050245
Background: The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was developed in order to help quantify the parental contribution to psychological distress. It has subsequently been shown to be of value in examining the influence of parents in many diverse areas including delinquency.
Method: A shortened form of the PBI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were administered to a group of young offenders held in custody in Scotland.
Results: High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there were no associations between psychological distress and parental control. However, an analysis of the factor structure found that, although the care factor of the PBI showed good internal reliability, the control factor was less well defined in this group.
Conclusions: It is suggested that a three-factor solution representing care, control with regard to independence and protective control may be more appropriate.
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology: Volume 35, Issue 7