Chambers J, Power KG, Loucks N & Swanson V (2001) The interaction of perceived maternal and paternal parenting styles and their relation with the psychological distress and offending characteristics of incarcerated young offenders. Journal of Adolescence, 24 (2), pp. 209-227. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.2001.0377
A shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) (Pederson, 1994) was used to examine the relationship between parenting styles and the psychological distress and offending patterns of a group of young male offenders held in custody in Scotland. High levels of psychological distress were linked with low parental care, but there was no association between psychological distress and parental control. Parental care was not a distinguishing factor in offending patterns, although high paternal control was linked with a younger age of first arrest. When interactions of paternal and maternal parenting styles were examined, young offenders who perceived poor parenting (i.e. neglectful parenting or affectionless control) from both parents had the highest levels of psychological distress overall.
Journal of Adolescence: Volume 24, Issue 2