Chambers J, Power KG, Loucks N & Swanson V (2000) The quality of perceived parenting and its association with peer relationships and psychological distress in a group of incarcerated young offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 44 (3), pp. 350-368. https://doi.org/10.1177/0306624X00443007
An investigation was carried out to examine the association of perceived parenting as measured by a shortened form of the Parental Bonding Instrument with self-esteem, relationships with peers and staff, and psychological distress levels in a group of young offenders held in custody. There were strong associations between low parental care with both low self-esteem and increased psychological distress as well as between low maternal care and poorer peer relationships. In addition, poor-quality peer relationships with other inmates and low self-esteem showed strong associations with increased levels of psychological distress in prison, suggesting that peer relations and self-esteem may both act as mediator variables in the association between parental care and anxiety and depression. There were, however, no associations between self-esteem and either the quality or number of peer relationships.
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology: Volume 44, Issue 3