Citation Calderwood E & Davies K (2013) Co-operatives in the Retail Sector: Can One Label Fit All?. Journal of Co-operative Studies, 46 (1), pp. 16-31. http://www.thenews.coop/wp-content/uploads/S3-CalderwoodDavies-137.pdf
Abstract Studies of the development and strategic approaches of co-operative retailers have tended to focus on the tension between management styles, given labels such as ‘traders' and ‘idealists,' and the ways in which co-operatives then deal with their members. Most issue a general call for the greater integration of co-operative values and principles into strategic behaviour. However, these approaches often overlook the variety of organisational forms adopted by co-operative retailers and the effect that these have on their operations and their focus on co-operative principles. Thus, the needs and expectations of members will vary significantly between consumer co-operatives, worker co-operatives and retailer-sponsored co-operatives. Large co-operative retailers also have to deal with the expectations of non-members who will make up a major proportion of their customer base. To provide a basis for the discussion of different strategies in the retail sector, a typology of co‑operative retail forms is proposed.