Avons SE & Phillips W (1980) Visualization and memorization as a function of display time and poststimulus processing time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6 (4), pp. 407-420. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-73184.108.40.2067
Three experiments with 48 undergraduates investigated the relationship of short- and long-term components of visual memory (STVM and LTVM) to the processing time at presentation. Components were isolated by measuring the recognition of novel visual patterns after a short, unfilled retention interval (STVM) or after interference (LTVM). Exp I showed a dissociation of STVM and LTVM when display time of the target was varied. STVM increased rapidly as the display time increased from 60 to 200 msec, a result confirmed in Exp II for patterns at 2 levels of complexity. LTVM increased slowly and erratically as display time increased from 60 msec to 2.6 sec. No increase in LTVM was seen when poststimulus processing time was extended from 400 msec to 2.7 sec. Results pose problems for single trace theories of visual memory and for serial models that claim that all information in LTVM is derived from STVM. The distinction between maintenance and elaboration is used to explain the occurrence of visualization without memorization.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory: Volume 6, Issue 4
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