Chavez Sanchez MC, Martinez-Palacios CA, Martinez-Perez G & Ross L (2000) Phosphorus and calcium requirements in the diet of the American cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther). Aquaculture Nutrition, 6 (1), pp. 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2095.2000.00118.x
An experiment was carried out with Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) juveniles to determine the phosphorus requirement and its interaction with dietary calcium. Twelve isoenergetic and isoproteic diets were prepared using a basal artificial diet containing vitamin-free casein, dextrin, starch, corn oil, fish oil, vitamin mixture and a mineral mixture free of calcium and phosphorus. Calcium and phosphorus levels were determined in the casein. To the basal diets were added different concentrations of phosphorus as potassium monophosphate (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 g kg-1) and calcium as calcium carbonate (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 4.0 g kg-1). These concentrations resulted in varying Ca-P ratios (1:1, 1.33:1, 1.5:1, 1.6:1 and 2.0:1). Calcium and phosphorus concentrations in the water were 84 mg kg-1 and 0.003 mg kg-1, respectively. The diet with 0.5 g kg-1 phosphorus resulted in deficiency signs such as reduced growth, high conversion ratio, high fat content and low bone mineralization. Increased levels of dietary calcium and phosphorus both gave improved growth and mineralization. Mineralization continued to increase with dietary phosphorus levels above that required for maximum growth. The optimum level of phosphorus in the diet was 1.5 g kg-1, the optimum calcium level was 1.8 g kg-1 and the optimum Ca-P ratio was 1.3. Carcass lipid levels were inversely related to dietary phosphorus.
Aquaculture Nutrition: Volume 6, Issue 1