Martinez-Palacios CA, Ross L & Sanchez Licea VH (1996) The tolerance to salinity, respiratory characteristics and potential for aquaculture of the Central American cichlid, Cichlasoma synspilum (Hubbs, 1935). Aquaculture Research, 27 (4), pp. 215-220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.1996.tb00987.x
The salinity tolerance of Cichlasoma synspilum (Hubbs) fry was measured at intervals up to 144 h. Good survival was obtained only up to about 5%o, and 100% mortality was recorded after 4 h at 20%o. The 144-h LC50 was estimated to be 14.5%o and this species is clearly a very stenohaline, freshwater animal. Respiratory rates of animals from 0.8 to 245 g were measured in fresh water at temperatures of 20,25, 30 and 35 C. The rates were similar to those in other cichlids, but were notably lower than those recorded for Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther). This species has potential for aquaculture in fresh water and marginal brackish waters within its natural range, and the experiments reported here provide useful background data for system design and husbandry.
Aquaculture Research: Volume 27, Issue 4