Monaghan S, Thompson K, Adams A & Bergmann SM (2015) Sensitivity of seven PCRs for early detection of koi herpesvirus in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L., by lethal and non-lethal sampling methods [Early KHV detection by 7 PCRs]. Journal of Fish Diseases, 38 (3), pp. 303-319. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfd.12235
Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes an economically important, highly infectious disease in common carp and koi, Cyprinus carpio L. Since the occurrence of mass mortalities worldwide, highly specific and sensitive molecular diagnostic methods have been developed for KHV detection. The sensitivity and reliability of these assays have essentially focused at the detection of low viral DNA copy numbers during latent or persistent infections. However, the efficacy of these assays has not been investigated with regard to low-level viraemia during acute infection stages. This study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of seven different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect KHV during the first hours and days post-infection (hpi; dpi), using lethal and non-lethal sampling methods. The results highlight the limitations of the assays for detecting virus during the first 4 dpi despite rapid mortality in experimentally infected carp. False-negative results were associated with time post-infection and the tissue sampled. Non-lethal sampling appears effective for KHV screening, with efficient detection in mucus samples obtained from external swabs during this early infection period (< 5 dpi), while biopsies from gills and kidney were negative using the same PCR assays. Non-lethal sampling may improve the reliability of KHV detection in subclinical, acutely infected carp.
cyprinid herpesvirus 3; early detection; Koi herpesvirus; non-lethal sampling; polymerase chain reaction
Journal of Fish Diseases: Volume 38, Issue 3