Harlen W, Crick RD, Black P, Broadfoot P, Daugherty R, Gardner J, James M, Stobart G & Wiliam D (2003) A Systematic Review of the Impact on Students and Teachers of the Use of ICT for Assessment of Creative and Critical Thinking Skills. EPPI-Centre, University of London. http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=sVOeV1BF0Vw%3D&tabid=109&mid=916
First paragraph: The review reported here was prompted by the rapid changes associated with the ‘information age’. New technologies have created both the need for education toprovide students with what are described as ‘higher level thinking skills’ and the opportunity to teach and assess these skills. There is also evidence from two previous reviews of assessment (Harlen and Deakin Crick, 2002; Black and Wiliam, 1998) that, on the one hand, what is assessed for summative purposes is what is valued in the curriculum, and, on the other hand, that formative assessment of what is taught leads to improved learning. It follows that, if valued goals of education are to be taught effectively, they need to be assessed effectively for both formative and summative purposes. The reported neglect of creative and critical thinking in assessment (Harlen and Deakin Crick, 2000) is therefore a cause for concern, given the prominence it is accorded in currentdiscussion of the education that students need in preparation for life in a rapidly changing society and for life long learning.