Harlen W, Crick RD, Broadfoot P, Daugherty R, Gardner J, James M & Stobart G (2002) A Systematic Review of the Impact of Summative Assessment and Tests on Students’ Motivation for Learning. EPPI-Centre, University of London. https://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=Pbyl1CdsDJU%3D&tabid=108&mid=1003
First paragraph: The current widespread use of summative assessment and tests is supported by a range of arguments. The points made include that not only do tests indicate standards to be aimed for and enable these standards to be monitored, but that they also raise standards. Proponents claim that tests cause students, as well as teachers and schools, to put more effort into their work on account of the rewards and penalties that can be applied on the basis of the results of tests. In opposition to these arguments is the claim that increase in scores is mainly the consequence of familiarization with the tests and of teaching directed specifically towards answering the questions, rather than developing the skills and knowledge intended in the curriculum. It is argued that tests motivate only some students and increase the gap between higher and lower achieving students; moreover, tests motivate even the highest achieving students towards performance goals rather than to learning goals, as required for continuing learning.