Citation McGlory C, Galloway SD, Hamilton DL, McClintock C, Breen L, Dick JR, Bell JG & Tipton K (2014) Temporal changes in human skeletal muscle and blood lipid composition with fish oil supplementation. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 90 (6), pp. 199-206. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2014.03.001
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine changes in the lipid profile of red blood cells and muscle tissue along with the expression of anabolic signalling proteins in human skeletal muscle. Following a 2-week control period, 10 healthy male participants consumed 5 g d-1 of fish oil (FO) for 4 weeks. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state 2 weeks prior (W-2) and immediately before (W0) the initiation of FO supplementation for internal control. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were again obtained at week 1 (W1), 2 (W2) and 4 (W4) during FO supplementation for assessment of changes in lipid composition and expression of anabolic signalling proteins. There was no change in the composition of any lipid class between W-2 and W0 confirming control. Following FO supplementation n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) muscle lipid composition was increased from W0 to W2 and continued to rise at W4. n-3 PUFA blood lipid composition was increased from W0 to W1 and remained elevated for the remaining time points. Total protein content of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) increased from W0 to W4 whereas total mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) was increased from W0 at W1 with no further significant increases at W2 and W4. These data show that FO supplementation results in discordant changes in the n-3 PUFA composition of skeletal muscle compared to blood that is associated with increases in total FAK content.