Van Rompuy B, Margoni T, Hugenholtz PB, van Eijk N, McArdle D, Becker T, Jasserand-Breeman C & van der Harst M (2014) Study on Sports Organisers' Rights in the European Union: Final Report. European Commission. EAC 18/2012. European Union. http://ec.europa.eu/sport/news/2014/docs/study-sor2014-final-report-gc-compatible_en.pdf
The legal protection of rights to sporting events ("sports organisers' rights") is a contentious issue. While in recent years distinct aspects of the problem have been addressed by legislatures and courts, both at the national and at the European level, a great deal of legal uncertainty persists. Divergent views on the appropriateness, form and scope of such legal protection exist among stakeholders and other concerned parties, reflecting the complex nature and multiple functions of sports in modern society. The universe of sports and media is a complex network of social and commercial relationships with a variety of stakeholders, each one of whom can claim rights or specific interests in the value chain of organizing and exploiting sports events, such as clubs, leagues, athletes, federations, fans, media content providers, sponsors, owners of sport facilities, sports betting operators and news media.