Citation Ruyra A, Cano-Sarabia M, MacKenzie S, Maspoch D & Roher N (2013) A Novel Liposome-Based Nanocarrier Loaded with an LPS-dsRNA Cocktail for Fish Innate Immune System Stimulation. PLoS ONE, 8 (10), Art. No.: e76338. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076338
Abstract Development of novel systems of vaccine delivery is a growing demand of the aquaculture industry. Nano- and micro- encapsulation systems are promising tools to achieve efficient vaccines against orphan vaccine fish diseases. In this context, the use of liposomal based-nanocarriers has been poorly explored in fish; although liposomal nanocarriers have successfully been used in other species. Here, we report a new ~125 nm-in-diameter unilamellar liposome-encapsulated immunostimulant cocktail containing crude lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from E. coli and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)], a synthetic analog of dsRNA virus, aiming to be used as a non-specific vaccine nanocarrier in different fish species. This liposomal carrier showed high encapsulation efficiencies and low toxicity not only in vitro using three different cellular models but also in vivo using zebrafish embryos and larvae. We showed that such liposomal LPS-dsRNA cocktail is able to enter into contact with zebrafish hepatocytes (ZFL cell line) and trout macrophage plasma membranes, being preferentially internalized through caveolae-dependent endocytosis, although clathrin-mediated endocytosis in ZFL cells and macropinocytocis in macrophages also contribute to liposome uptake. Importantly, we also demonstrated that this liposomal LPS-dsRNA cocktail elicits a specific pro-inflammatory and anti-viral response in both zebrafish hepatocytes and trout macrophages. The design of a unique delivery system with the ability to stimulate two potent innate immunity pathways virtually present in all fish species represents a completely new approach in fish health.