Nehring H (2007) The Era of Non-Violence: "Terrorism" in West German, Italian and French political culture, 1968-1982. European Review of History / Revue Europeenne d'Histoire, 14 (3), pp. 343-371. https://doi.org/10.1080/13507480701611605
This article aims to reveal the changing semantics of violence in the three West European societies most affected by 'terrorism' from the late 1960s to the early 1980s: Italy, France and Germany. Specifically, this article traces the emergence, the trajectory and the impact of a coding of debates concerning political legitimacy during this period, which revolved primarily along the binary opposition of violence and non-violence. Its focus is on the dialectic interaction between these interpretive schemes and the occurrence of physical violence. The discourses on violence and non-violence made some forms of actions possible and legitimate. Conversely, violent and non-violent collective action transformed the meaning and structure of the discussions. This article argues that, despite all the bloodshed, this period saw the beginnings of an era of non-violence in the political cultures of the three countries.
European Review of History / Revue Europeenne d'Histoire: Volume 14, Issue 3