Bull ER, Dombrowski SU, McCleary N & Johnston M (2014) Are interventions for low-income groups effective in changing healthy eating, physical activity and smoking behaviours? a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 4 (11), Art. No.: e006046. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006046
Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of behavioural interventions targeting diet, physical activity or smoking in low-income adults.
Design: Systematic review with random effects meta-analyses. Studies before 2006 were identified from a previously published systematic review (searching 1995-2006) with similar but broader inclusion criteria (including non-randomised controlled trials (RCTs)). Studies from 2006 to 2014 were identified from eight electronic databases using a similar search strategy.
Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ASSIA, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trials, Cochrane Systematic Review and DARE.
Eligibility criteria for selecting studies: RCTs and cluster RCTs published from 1995 to 2014; interventions targeting dietary, physical activity and smoking; low-income adults; reporting of behavioural outcomes.
Main outcome measures: Dietary, physical activity and smoking cessation behaviours.
Results: 35 studies containing 45 interventions with 17 000 participants met inclusion criteria. At postintervention, effects were positive but small for diet (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.22, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.29), physical activity (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.36) and smoking (relative risk (RR) of 1.59, 95% CI 1.34 to 1.89). Studies reporting follow-up results suggested that effects were maintained over time for diet (SMD 0.16, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.25) but not physical activity (SMD 0.17, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.37) or smoking (RR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.34).
Conclusions: Behaviour change interventions for low-income groups had small positive effects on healthy eating, physical activity and smoking. Further work is needed to improve the effectiveness of behaviour change interventions for deprived populations.
BMJ Open: Volume 4, Issue 11
|Publication date online||28/11/2014|
|Date accepted by journal||06/11/2014|
|Publisher||BMJ Publishing Group|