Palacios Cerezales D (2017) Civil Resistance and Democracy in the Portuguese Revolution. Journal of Contemporary History, 52 (3), pp. 688-709. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022009416641496
During the summer of 1975, a year after the Carnation Revolution, thousands of Portuguese men and women took to the streets in order to prevent what they feared could be a communist takeover. A military-led government had trumpeted the transition to socialism and the Armed Forces Movement was discussing the dissolution of the recently elected constitutional convention. This article offers a new account of the significance and political impact of the anti-communist rallies, demonstrations and riots during 1975 and provides an interpretation of the mechanisms by which anticommunist mobilisation empowered moderate leaders and reversed the balance of power within the military, playing a crucial role in the triumph of electoral democracy.
Anticommunism; Demonstrations; Portugal; Resistance; Revolution; Violence
Journal of Contemporary History: Volume 52, Issue 3