Betancor M, Olsen RE, Solstorm D, Skulstad OF & Tocher DR (2016) Assessment of a land-locked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) population as a potential genetic resource with a focus on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism, 1861 (3), pp. 227-238. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbalip.2015.12.015
The natural food for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in freshwater has relatively low levels of omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), whereas post-smolt salmon in seawater have a diet naturally rich in n-3 LC-PUFA. Land-locked salmon such as the Gullspång population feed exclusively on freshwater type lipids during its entire life cycle, a successful adaptation derived from divergent evolution. Studying land-locked populations may provide insights into the molecular and genetic control mechanisms that determine and regulate n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis and retention in Atlantic salmon. A two factorial study was performed comparing land-locked and farmed salmon parr fed diets formulated with fish or rapeseed oil for 8 weeks. The land-locked parr had higher capacity to synthesise n-3 LC-PUFA as indicated by higher expression and activity of desaturase and elongase enzymes. The data suggested that the land-locked salmon had reduced sensitivity to dietary fatty acid composition and that dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) did not appear to suppress expression of LC-PUFA biosynthetic genes or activity of the biosynthesis pathway, probably an evolutionary adaptation to a natural diet lower in DHA. Increased biosynthetic activity did not translate to enhanced n-3 LC-PUFA contents in the flesh and diet was the only factor affecting this parameter. Additionally, high lipogenic and glycolytic potentials were found in land-locked salmon, together with decreased lipolysis which in turn could indicate increased use of carbohydrates as an energy source and a sparing of lipid.
omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids; Atlantic salmon; land-locked; desaturases; elongases
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Lipids and Lipid Metabolism: Volume 1861, Issue 3
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