Morrow S & Wheatley G (2003) The Ryder Cup 2014: Golf's homecoming?. Scottish Affairs, 43 (1), pp. 108-126. https://doi.org/10.3366/scot.2003.0027
First paragraph: To many, golf is synonymous with Scotland. The first written rules of golf were established by the Gentlemen Golfers at Leith in 1744 (Forsyth 1992). Prior to that the first golf club, the Royal Burgess Golfing Society of Edinburgh, was formed in 1735 (Forsyth 1992), while St. Andrews remains home to the Royal and Ancient, guardians of the world-wide game. Scotland's golf infrastructure rests on 534 golf courses, of which 71 are municipal or publicly owned. Scotland has more golf courses per head of population than anywhere else in the world.
Scottish Affairs: Volume 43, Issue 1