Wang G, Tanaka M, Eynon N, North K, Williams A, Collins MR, Moran CN, Britton SL, Fuku N, Ashley E, Klissouras V, Lucia A, Ahmetov I, de Geus E, Alsayrafi M & Pitsiladis Y (2016) The Future of Genomic Research in Athletic Performance and Adaptation to Training. In: Posthumus M & Collins M (eds.) Genetics and Sports. 2nd ed. Medicine and Sports Science, 61. Basel: Karger, pp. 55-67. http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/445241
Despite numerous attempts to discover genetic variants associated with elite athletic performance, an individual's trainability and injury predisposition, there has been limited progress to date. Past reliance on candidate gene studies focusing predominantly on genotyping a limited number of genetic variants in small, often heterogeneous cohorts has not generated results of practical significance. Hypothesis-free genome-wide approaches will in the future provide more comprehensive coverage and in-depth understanding of the biology underlying sports-related traits and related genetic mechanisms. Large, collaborative projects with sound experimental designs (e.g. clearly defined phenotypes, considerations and controls for sources of variability, and necessary replications) are required to produce meaningful results, especially when a hypothesis-free approach is used. It remains to be determined whether the novel approaches under current implementation will result in findings with real practical significance. This review will briefly summarize current and future directions in exercise genetics and genomics.