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Article

Contrasts between organic participation in apatite biomineralization in brachiopod shell and vertebrate bone identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Citation
Neary MT, Reid DG, Mason MJ, Friscic T, Duer MJ & Cusack M (2011) Contrasts between organic participation in apatite biomineralization in brachiopod shell and vertebrate bone identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 8 (55), pp. 282-288. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2010.0238

Abstract
Unusually for invertebrates, linguliform brachiopods employ calcium phosphate mineral in hard tissue formation, in common with the evolutionarily distant vertebrates. Using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SSNMR) and X-ray powder diffraction, we compare the organic constitution, crystallinity and organic matrix-mineral interface of phosphatic brachiopod shells with those of vertebrate bone. In particular, the organic-mineral interfaces crucial for the stability and properties of biomineral were probed with SSNMR rotational echo double resonance (REDOR). Lingula anatina and Discinisca tenuis shell materials yield strikingly dissimilar SSNMR spectra, arguing for quite different organic constitutions. However, their fluoroapatite-like mineral is highly crystalline, unlike the poorly ordered hydroxyapatite of bone. Neither shell material shows 13C{ 31P} REDOR effects, excluding strong physico-chemical interactions between mineral and organic matrix, unlike bone in which glycosaminoglycans and proteins are composited with mineral at sub-nanometre length scales. Differences between organic matrix of shell material from L. anatina and D. tenuis, and bone reflect evolutionary pressures from contrasting habitats and structural purposes. The absence of organic-mineral intermolecular associations in brachiopod shell argues that biomineralization follows different mechanistic pathways to bone; their details hold clues to the molecular structural evolution of phosphatic biominerals, and may provide insights into novel composite design. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Keywords
Lingula anatina; Discinisca tenuis; francolite; hydroxyapatite; fluoroapatite; bone

Journal
Journal of the Royal Society Interface: Volume 8, Issue 55

StatusPublished
Author(s)Neary, Marianne T; Reid, David G; Mason, Michael J; Friscic, Tomislav; Duer, Melinda J; Cusack, Maggie
Publication date06/02/2011
Publication date online23/12/2010
Date accepted by journal16/06/2010
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/25085
PublisherThe Royal Society
ISSN1742-5662
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