Citation Cusack M & Freer A (2008) Biomineralization: Elemental and organic influence in carbonate systems. Chemical Reviews, 108 (11), pp. 4433-4454. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr078270o
Abstract Biomineralization is the accumulation of minerals by organisms especially into biological structures. The biomineral structures perform a wide range of interrelated functions including support and mobility in the vertebrate skeleton and many others. In the biosphere, there are at least 60 different minerals, calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and silica are the most abundant. The physical and material properties of these biocomposites can be ultimately determined using the variety of biomineral ultrastructures and chemical compositions, in combination with organic components. The organic components influence the mineral even at the level of the unit cell. Biomineral are produced under strict biological means, in which crystallization rate influenced the final composition of the biomineral. Biomineralization process, focusing on marine invertebrates, have been provided with a view of understanding and interpreting climate data recorded by their chemical and isotopic composition. The carbonate systems that are considered includes corals, bivalves, brachiopods, coccoliths, and foraminifera.