Development and initial validation of the Life Skills Scale for Sport


Cronin LD & Allen J (2017) Development and initial validation of the Life Skills Scale for Sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 28, pp. 105-119.

Objectives  The aim of this research was to develop a measure of life skills development through sport.  Method  Four studies were conducted to develop the Life Skills Scale for Sport (LSSS). Study 1 developed items for the scale and included 39 reviewers’ assessment of content validity. Study 2 included 338 youth sport participants and used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and descriptive statistics to reduce the number of items in the scale and explore the factor structure of each subscale and the whole scale. Study 3 included 223 youth sport participants and assessed the factor structure of the scale using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor modeling. Study 4 investigated the test-retest reliability of the scale over a two-week period with 37 youth sport participants.  Results  Study 1 resulted in the development of the initial 144-item LSSS and provided content validity evidence for all items. Study 2 refined the scale to 47 items and provided preliminary evidence for the unidimensional factor structure of each subscale. Study 3 supported the factorial validity of the scale, with ESEM solutions providing the best fit and resulting in more differentiated factors. Study 4 provided evidence for the test-retest reliability of the scale.  Conclusions  Collectively, these studies provided initial evidence for the validity and reliability of the LSSS; a measure which can be used by researchers and practitioners to assess participants’ perceived life skills development through sport.

Positive youth development; Psychosocial development; Psychosocial assets; Youth sport; Exploratory structural equation modeling; Bifactor modeling

Psychology of Sport and Exercise: Volume 28

Publication date31/01/2017
Publication date online03/11/2016
Date accepted by journal01/11/2016