Monaghan S, Thompson KD, Smith P & Adams A (2016) Potential of DIVA vaccines for Fish. In: Adams A (ed.) Fish Vaccines. Birkhauser Advances in Infectious Diseases. Basel, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing AG, pp. 143-173. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-0348-0980-1_7; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-0348-0980-1_7
The expanding aquaculture industry continues to encounter major challenges from highly contagious viruses. Control and eradication measures for lethal and economically damaging notifiable viral diseases involve ‘stamping out’ policies and surveillance strategies. Mass-culling of stock and restricted movement of fish and fish products, used to control the spread of notifiable diseases, has considerable impacts on the trade of fish products. Although effective, these measures are expensive and ethically complex and could possibly be reduced by emulating innovative vaccination strategies used by the terrestrial livestock industry. DIVA (differentiating infected from vaccinated animal) strategies provide a basis to vaccinate and contain disease outbreaks without compromising ‘disease-free’ status, as antibodies induced during infection can be used to distinguish from those induced by vaccination. The potential and feasibility of DIVA vaccination in aquaculture is explored here with reference to DIVA strategies applied in higher vertebrates. Three economically important notifiable viruses, causing major problems in three different cultured fish industries, are considered. The increased availability and application of sophisticated biotechnology tools has enabled improved prophylaxis and serological diagnosis for control of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia in rainbow trout, infectious salmon anaemia in Atlantic salmon and koi herpesvirus disease in carp. Improving the specificity of serological diagnostics in aquaculture in conjunction with suitable vaccines could enable the application of DIVA strategies, but the immunological variation between different fish species and contrasting pathobiological characteristics of different viruses determines the feasibility and potential of such DIVA approaches for aquaculture industries.
DIVA vaccine; fish disease; marker vaccine; fish virus