Article

Does the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of addiction apply in an Islamic context? A qualitative study of Jordanian addicts in treatment

Citation

Al-Ghaferi H, Bond CM & Matheson C (2017) Does the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of addiction apply in an Islamic context? A qualitative study of Jordanian addicts in treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 172, pp. 14-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.11.019

Abstract
Background: There is a dearth of research in the published literature on substance use and addiction in the Middle East and Islamic countries. This study was the first to explore whether the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of addiction was relevant to an addicted treatment population in Jordan, an Islamic country.  Methods: A qualitative study design using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sample of 25 males in addiction treatment. The sample was drawn from a cohort of in-patients at a treatment centre in Amman, Jordan who had already participated in a quantitative survey. A purposive sample was selected to ensure the inclusion of a range of characteristics that might affect their experience of developing addiction and its consequences, i.e., age, marital status and educational level. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis conducted using verbatim quotes to illustrate themes. Themes were mapped onto the biopsychosocial-spiritual model of addiction. Results: This study found addiction was associated with a range of health (physical and psychological), social and spiritual factors. Unpleasant physical withdrawal effects, psychological symptoms, such as anxiety and suicide attempts, were experienced. There was breakdown in marital and family relations, loss of employment, involvement in crime and neglect of religious practices, resulting in social isolation.  Conclusion: This study found that, despite some differences in emphasis, the biopsychosocial, spiritual model of addiction fit wel,l particularly given the relative importance of religion in Islamic culture. Spirituality was not explored and further study of spirituality versus religious practice in this culture is recommended. © 2016

Keywords
Islam; biopsychosocial model; spiritual; addiction;

Journal
Drug and Alcohol Dependence: Volume 172

StatusPublished
Publication date31/03/2017
Publication date online23/11/2016
Date accepted by journal03/11/2016
PublisherElsevier
ISSN0376-8716