Ara G, Little DC, Mamun A, De Roos B, Grieve E, Khanam M, Hasan SMT, Ireen S, Dilruba S, Bushra Boitchi A, Dijkhuizen MA, Ahmed T & Roos N (2023) Factors affecting the micronutrient status of adolescent girls living in complex agro-aquatic ecological zones of Bangladesh. Scientific Reports, 13, Art. No.: 6631. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-023-33636-8
Inadequate intake of both macro and micronutrients is the major determinant of micronutrient deficiencies in adolescent girls. This study assessed multiple micronutrient status including vitamin D, iron, vitamin A, and urinary iodine concentration among adolescent girls through two seasonal cross-sectional surveys conducted during dry and wet seasons. Mixed-effects linear and logistic regression analysis were conducted to assess associations between micronutrient status, salinity and seasonality. The mean age of the girls was 14 years. Vitamin (OH)D insufficiency was significantly higher in freshwater areas in wet season compared to dry season (wet season: 58% and dry season: 30%, P < 0.001). In wet season, risk of vitamin (OH)D insufficiency was three times higher compared to dry season (AOR: 3.03, 95% CI 1.71, 5.37, P < 0.001). The odds of vitamin (OH)D insufficiency was 11 times higher in fresh water areas compared to high saline areas (AOR: 11.51, 95% CI 3.40, 38.93, P < 0.001). The girls had higher risk of iron deficiency in wet season. Despite the environment being enriched with micronutrient-contained aquatic food, adolescent girls in coastal areas experience different micronutrient deficiencies. The high prevalence of vitamin (OH)D insufficiency in freshwater locations and seasonal iron deficiency in high saline areas needs attention.
Nutrition; Public Health
Scientific Reports: Volume 13