Newton RW, Maiolo S, Malcorps W & Little DC (2023) Life Cycle Inventories of marine ingredients. Aquaculture, 565, Art. No.: 739096. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2022.739096
Marine ingredients are still regarded as a vital constituent of aquaculture and other livestock feeds. Despite numerous publications that have discussed the sustainability issues, there are few sources that provide detailed information that allow for quantification of marine ingredient environmental impact. A Life Cycle Inventory was compiled from many available literature sources that will allow for Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of marine ingredients using standard methodologies. While this inventory is the most complete to date, there are still important data gaps that the industry should endeavour to fill. Demonstration of the inventory using an economically allocated LCA showed that marine ingredients are very variable in their impact between and even within species, mostly depending on the fuel intensity of the fishery from which they are sourced. Marine ingredients were typically lower in environmental footprint compared to terrestrial ingredients, although LCAs do not take into account the stock status of fisheries, which must be considered separately.
Fishmeal; Fish oil; Sustainability; LCA; Fish in fish out; Aquaculture
Aquaculture: Volume 565