Farquharson B, Dixon D, Williams B, Torrens C, Philpott M, Laidlaw H & McDermott S (2023) The psychological and behavioural factors associated with laypeople initiating CPR for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a systematic review. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 23 (1), Art. No.: 19. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12872-022-02904-2
Prompt, effective CPR greatly increases the chances of survival in out-of-hospital c ardiac arrest. However, it is often not provided, even by people who have previously undertaken training. Psychological and behavioural factors are likely to be important in relation to CPR initiation by lay-people but have not yet been systematically identified.
Aim: to identify the psychological and behavioural factors associated with CPR initiation amongst lay-people.
Design: Systematic review
Data sources: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo and Google Scholar.
Study eligibility criteria: Primary studies reporting psychological or behavioural factors and data on CPR initiation involving lay-people published (inception to 31 Dec 2021).
Study appraisal and synthesis methods: Potential studies were screened independently by two reviewers. Study characteristics, psychological and behavioural factors associated with CPR initiation were extracted from included studies, categorised by study type and synthesised narratively.
One hundred and five studies (150,820 participants) comprising various designs, populations and of mostly weak quality were identified. The strongest and most ecologically valid studies identified factors associated with CPR initiation: the overwhelming emotion of the situation, perceptions of capability, uncertainty about when CPR is appropriate, feeling unprepared and fear of doing harm. Current evidence comprises mainly atheoretical cross-sectional surveys using unvalidated measures with relatively little formal testing of relationships between proposed variables and CPR initiation.
Preparing people to manage strong emotions and increasing their perceptions of capability are likely important foci for interventions aiming to increase CPR initiation. The literature in this area would benefit from more robust study designs.
CPR; Bystander; Laypeople; Systematic review; Psychological; Behavioural; Out-of-hospital-cardiac arrest
BMC Cardiovascular Disorders: Volume 23, Issue 1