Shi B, Tao X, Betancor MB, Lu J, Tocher DR, Meng F, Figueiredo-Silva C, Zhou Q, Jiao L & Jin M (2021) Dietary chromium modulates glucose homeostasis and induces oxidative stress in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquatic Toxicology, 240, Art. No.: 105967. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.105967
While chromium (Cr) has been recognized as an essential nutrient for all animals, and dietary supplementation can be beneficial, it can also be toxic. The present study aimed to investigate the contrasting effects of dietary chromium in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Five experimental diets were formulated to contain Cr at levels of 0.82 (Cr0.82, unsupplemented diet), 1.01 (Cr1.01), 1.22 (Cu1.22), 1.43 (Cr1.43) and 1.63 (Cr1.63) mg/kg and were fed to shrimp for 8 weeks. Highest weight gain was recorded in shrimp fed the diet containing 1.22 mg/kg Cr. Shrimp fed the diet containing the highest level of Cr (1.63 mg/kg) showed the lowest weight gain and clear signs of oxidative stress and apoptosis as evidenced by higher levels of H2O2, malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and expression of caspase 2, 3, 5, and lower contents of total and oxidized glutathione, and expression of Cu/Zn sod, cat, gpx, mt, bcl2. Chromium supplementation promoted glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis as shown by increased activities of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase, and reduced activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in shrimp fed the diet containing 1.43 mg/kg Cr. Shrimp fed the diet with 1.63 mg/kg Cr had lowest contents of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone and insulin like peptide in hemolymph. Expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathway and glycose metabolism including insr, irs1, pik3ca, pdpk1, akt, acc1, gys, glut1, pk, hk were up-regulated, and foxO1, gsk-3β, g6pc, pepck were down-regulated in shrimp fed the diets supplemented with Cr. This study demonstrated that optimum dietary supplementation of Cr had beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis and growth, whereas excess caused oxidative damage and impaired growth. The results contribute to our understanding of the biological functions of chromium in shrimp.
Chromium; Oxidative stress; Apoptosis; Glucose metabolism; Litopenaeus vannamei
Aquatic Toxicology: Volume 240