Cawood I (2021) A history of British political sleaze – and why we should worry about the Johnson government. University of Stirling Public Policy Blog [Blog post] 31.05.2021. https://policyblog.stir.ac.uk/2021/05/31/a-history-of-british-political-sleaze-and-why-we-should-worry-about-the-johnson-government/
First paragraph: At the beginning of the 19th century, aristocratic networks connected to the monarchy and the Tory party had effectively “captured” the institutions of the state and exploited them for their own advantage. Britain was blighted by people in official positions without duties, embezzlement of public funds, jobs for family, clients and friends, rampant over-manning and the failure to pursue the public good.
It caused social and political disruption and left social inequalities unaddressed. It even triggered the occasional military disaster – most notoriously in the loss of the American colonies, but also in successive setbacks during the wars with France between 1793 and 1815.