Article

Environmental performance of blue foods

Citation

Gephart JA, Henriksson PJG, Parker RWR, Shepon A, Gorospe KD, Bergman K, Eshel G, Golden CD, Halpern BS, Hornborg S, Jonell M, Metian M, Mifflin K, Newton R, Tyedmers P, Zhang W, Ziegler F & Troell M (2021) Environmental performance of blue foods. Nature, 597, Art. No.: 360-365. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03889-2

Abstract
Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets.

Keywords
Environmental impact; Sustainability

Journal
Nature: Volume 597

StatusPublished
Publication date31/12/2021
Publication date online30/09/2021
Date accepted by journal09/08/2021
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/33056
ISSN0028-0836
eISSN1476-4687