Prevalence and Impact of Dysmenorrhea Among University Students in Ireland



Durand H, Monahan K & McGuire BE (2021) Prevalence and Impact of Dysmenorrhea Among University Students in Ireland. Pain Medicine, 22 (12), pp. 2835-2845.

Objective Primary dysmenorrhea (PD), or painful menstruation, is a common gynecological condition that can cause intense pain and functional disability in women of reproductive age. As a nonmalignant condition, PD is relatively understudied and poorly managed. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and impact of PD among third-level students in Ireland. Design A cross-sectional observational design was used. Methods Students (n = 892; age range = 18–45 years) completed an online survey on menstrual pain characteristics, pain management strategies, pain interference, and pain catastrophizing. Results The prevalence of PD was 91.5% (95% confidence interval = 89.67–93.33). Nonpharmacological management strategies were most popular (95.1%); of these, heat application (79%), rest (60.4%), hot shower/bath (40.9%), and exercise (25.7%) were most common. Perceived effectiveness of these methods varied between participants. Analgesic use was also common (79.5%); of these, paracetamol was most used (60.5%) despite limited perceived effectiveness. Pain catastrophizing was a significant predictor of variance in both pain intensity and pain interference scores such that those with higher pain catastrophizing scores reported more intense pain and greater interference with daily activities and academic demands. Conclusions This article presents the first investigation into PD among third-level students in Ireland. Poorly managed menstrual pain may impact functional ability across several domains. Future research should focus on improving menstrual pain management education and support and promoting menstrual health literacy for women affected by PD.

Dysmenorrhea; Menstrual Pain; Menstruation; Pain Catastrophizing; Anxiety

Pain Medicine: Volume 22, Issue 12

FundersNational University of Ireland
Publication date31/12/2021
Publication date online30/04/2021
Date accepted by journal29/03/2021
PublisherOxford University Press (OUP)

People (1)


Dr Hannah Durand
Dr Hannah Durand

Lecturer in Psychology, Psychology