Ruiz MA, Betancor M, Montero D, Caballero MJ, Hernandez-Cruz CM, Rosenlund G, Fontanillas R & Izquierdo M (2021) The effect of fish stocking density and dietary supplementation of vitamin C and micronutrients (Mn, Zn and Se) on the development of systemic granulomatosis in juvenile meagre (Argyrosomus regius). Aquaculture Research, 52 (11), pp. 5703-5718. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.15446
Systematic granulomatosis is a chronic disease that affects the majority of farmed meagre (A. regius). Nutritional imbalances and overcrowding can increase the risk to suffer oxidative stress, and consequently impact the incidence of granulomatosis. In order to evaluate this, juvenile meagre were fed five isolipidic (16.7 %) and isoproteic (49.6 %) fish meal and fish oil-based feeds prepared by adding different levels of vitamin C, minerals (Mn, Zn, Se) with constant vitamin E and K (300 and 35 mg kg-1, respectively): Diet KEC (100 mg kg-1C), Diet KEC+Mn/Zn/Se (100 mg kg-1C, 40 mg kg-1Mn, 200 mg kg-1Zn, 1.5 mg kg-1Se), Diet KECC (600 mg kg-1C), Diet KECCC (1,200 mg kg-1C), Diet KECCCC (3,200 mg kg-1C). All diets were tested at 3.20 kg m-3, but diets KECC and KECCCC was also tested at 6.20 kg m-3. Growth performance was only affected by stocking density, being lower at high density. Percentage of fish with granulomas was significantly lower in fish fed with the highest dietary vitamin C contents (KECCC and KECCCC) at low density. TBARS content was correlated with the percentage of granulomas in liver (R2=0.9439, y=0.003x-0.1242) denoting the involvement of an imbalance oxidative status in the appearance of granulomas. The present results show that high levels of vitamin C (1,200-3,200 mg kg-1C) and low stock density (3.20 kg m-3) favours the growth of juvenile meagre, reducing the lipid peroxidation indicators and decreasing the incidence of granulomas, which confirms that this pathology is mostly triggered by deficiency of antioxidant nutrients, particularly vitamin C.
Granulomatosis; oxidative stress; vitamin E; vitamin C; Mn; Zn; Se; stocking density
Aquaculture Research: Volume 52, Issue 11