Article

The Dynamic Interplay of Hope vs Fear Appeals in a Referendum Context

Citation

Black I, Baines P, Baines N, O’Shaughnessy N & Mortimore R (2021) The Dynamic Interplay of Hope vs Fear Appeals in a Referendum Context. Journal of Political Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377857.2021.1892900

Abstract
This article makes a contribution by articulating, for the first time, how hope and fear appeals were constructed as a rhetorical media device in a political advertising campaign context, specifically the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. Based on a qualitative content analysis of both sides’ campaigning materials, an understanding of the fluid, responsive and symbiotic nature of these emotional appeals and how they are utilized against the other is outlined. The research reveals core dimensions for constructing persuasive media appeals. While, fear appeals should strive to create a threat perceived to be relevant, and significant, the deployed hope appeals should focus on generating alternative positive visions and be goal congruent. By understanding contested (political) campaigns, new types of hybrid hope and fears appeal emerge (i.e. hope and fear reduction appeals). Taking these findings together, allows the authors to provide prescriptions on how certain message appeal types might be used to induce particular emotional effects in the audience.

Keywords
Hope appeals; fear appeals; referendum advertising; political communications; Scottish independence referendum

Notes
Output Status: Forthcoming/Available Online

Journal
Journal of Political Marketing

StatusIn Press
Publication date online11/03/2021
Date accepted by journal04/02/2021
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/32527
ISSN1537-7857
eISSN1537-7865