Article

Regulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in teleost fish

Citation

Xie D, Chen C, Dong Y, You C, Wang S, Monroig Ó, Tocher DR & Li Y (2021) Regulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in teleost fish. Progress in Lipid Research, 82, pp. 1-15, Art. No.: 101095. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plipres.2021.101095

Abstract
Omega-3 (n-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA, C20-24), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), are involved in numerous biological processes and have a range of health benefits. Fish have long been considered as the main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in human diets. However, the capacity for endogenous biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 PUFA varies in fish species based on the presence, expression and activity of key enzymes including fatty acyl desaturases (Fads) and elongation of very long-chain fatty acids (Elovl) proteins. In this article, we review progress on the identified Fads and Elovl, as well as the regulatory mechanisms of LC-PUFA biosynthesis both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in teleosts. The most comprehensive advances have been obtained in rabbitfish Siganus canaliculatus, a marine teleost demonstrated to have the entire pathway for LC-PUFA biosynthesis, including the roles of transcription factors hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (Hnf4α), liver X receptor alpha (Lxrα), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (Srebp-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (Pparγ) and stimulatory protein 1 (Sp1), as well as post-transcriptional regulation by individual microRNA (miRNA) or clusters. This research has, for the first time, demonstrated the involvement of Hnf4α, Pparγ and miRNA in the regulation of LC-PUFA biosynthesis in vertebrates. The present review provides readers with a relatively comprehensive overview of the progress made into understanding LC-PUFA biosynthetic systems in teleosts, and some insights into improving endogenous LC-PUFA biosynthesis capacity aimed at reducing the dependence of aquafeeds on fish oil while maintaining or increasing flesh LC-PUFA content and the nutritional quality of farmed fish.

Keywords
LC-PUFA biosynthesis; Transcriptional regulation; Post-transcriptional regulation; Aquaculture

Journal
Progress in Lipid Research: Volume 82

StatusPublished
Publication date30/04/2021
Publication date online16/03/2021
Date accepted by journal12/03/2021
ISSN0163-7827