Article

Semantic segmentation of citrus-orchard using deep neural networks and multispectral UAV-based imagery

Citation

Osco LP, Nogueira K, Marques Ramos AP, Faita Pinheiro MM, Furuya DEG, Gonçalves WN, de Castro Jorge LA, Marcato Junior J & dos Santos JA (2021) Semantic segmentation of citrus-orchard using deep neural networks and multispectral UAV-based imagery. Precision Agriculture, 22 (4), pp. 1171-1188. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11119-020-09777-5

Abstract
Accurately mapping farmlands is important for precision agriculture practices. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) embedded with multispectral cameras are commonly used to map plants in agricultural landscapes. However, separating plantation fields from the remaining objects in a multispectral scene is a difficult task for traditional algorithms. In this connection, deep learning methods that perform semantic segmentation could help improve the overall outcome. In this study, state-of-the-art deep learning methods to semantic segment citrus-trees in multispectral images were evaluated. For this purpose, a multispectral camera that operates at the green (530–570 nm), red (640–680 nm), red-edge (730–740 nm) and also near-infrared (770–810 nm) spectral regions was used. The performance of the following five state-of-the-art pixelwise methods were evaluated: fully convolutional network (FCN), U-Net, SegNet, dynamic dilated convolution network (DDCN) and DeepLabV3 + . The results indicated that the evaluated methods performed similarly in the proposed task, returning F1-Scores between 94.00% (FCN and U-Net) and 94.42% (DDCN). It was also determined the inference time needed per area and, although the DDCN method was slower, based on a qualitative analysis, it performed better in highly shadow-affected areas. This study demonstrated that the semantic segmentation of citrus orchards is highly achievable with deep neural networks. The state-of-the-art deep learning methods investigated here proved to be equally suitable to solve this task, providing fast solutions with inference time varying from 0.98 to 4.36 min per hectare. This approach could be incorporated into similar research, and contribute to decision-making and accurate mapping of plantation fields.

Keywords
Convolutional neural network; Remote sensing; Thematic map

Journal
Precision Agriculture: Volume 22, Issue 4

StatusPublished
FundersBrazilian National Research Council
Publication date31/08/2021
Publication date online31/01/2021
Date accepted by journal04/12/2020
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/32250
ISSN1385-2256
eISSN1573-1618