Metcalf JS & Codd GA (2020) Co-Occurrence of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins with Other Environmental Health Hazards: Impacts and Implications. Toxins, 12 (10), Art. No.: 629. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100629
Toxin-producing cyanobacteria in aquatic, terrestrial, and aerial environments can occur alongside a wide range of additional health hazards including biological agents and synthetic materials. Cases of intoxications involving cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins, with exposure to additional hazards, are discussed. Examples of the co-occurrence of cyanobacteria in such combinations are reviewed, including cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins plus algal toxins, microbial pathogens and fecal indicator bacteria, metals, pesticides, and microplastics. Toxicity assessments of cyanobacteria, cyanotoxins, and these additional agents, where investigated in bioassays and in defined combinations, are discussed and further research needs are identified.
cyanobacteria; co-occurrence; toxicity; plastics; metals; biocide
Toxins: Volume 12, Issue 10
|Funders||University of Dundee|
|Publication date online||31/10/2020|
|Date accepted by journal||15/09/2020|