Article

The nutritional and cardiovascular health benefits of rapeseed oil-fed farmed salmon in humans are not decreased compared with those of traditionally farmed salmon: a randomized controlled trial

Citation

de Roos B, Wood S, Bremner D, Bashir S, Betancor MB, Fraser WD, Duthie SJ, Horgan GW & Sneddon AA (2020) The nutritional and cardiovascular health benefits of rapeseed oil-fed farmed salmon in humans are not decreased compared with those of traditionally farmed salmon: a randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Nutrition. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02396-w

Abstract
Purpose Farmed fish are increasingly raised on feeds containing vegetable oils, which affects their composition and possibly health properties. We investigated the effects of consuming farmed salmon, raised on different feeding regimes, on nutrient status and health outcomes in healthy subjects. Methods Salmon were grown on feeds containing mainly fish oil (FO) or rapeseed oil (RO), resulting in an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of fillets of 2.1 or 0.9 g/100 g, respectively. In a randomized parallel controlled trial, 51 healthy subjects were allocated to consume 2 portions/week of FO salmon (n = 17), RO salmon (n = 17) or no additional salmon (Control, n = 17) as part of their habitual diet, for 18 weeks. We collected blood at 0, 9 and 18 weeks to measure omega-3 index (O3I) in red blood cells, plasma markers of cardiovascular risk, serum 25(OH)-vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and plasma trace elements. Results: After 18 weeks, O3I was similarly increased in subjects consuming 2 portions/week of FO or RO salmon compared to control (both p < 0.05). Serum 25(OH)D3 was significantly higher, whereas plasma triacylglycerols were significantly lower in subjects consuming RO salmon compared to control (both p < 0.05). Heart rate was significantly lower in subjects consuming FO salmon after 9 weeks, compared to control (p < 0.01). Salmon consumption did not affect other markers. Conclusion: Consuming two portions/week of salmon raised on rapeseed oil rather than fish oil increased the O3I and vitamin D status, and decreased plasma triacylglycerols. These outcomes endorse opportunities for developing more sustainable feeds within aquaculture food systems. Clinical trial registry: This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01916434.

Keywords
Farmed fish; Fish feeds; Cardiovascular health; Omega-3 index; Vitamin D; Micronutrients

Notes
Output Status: Forthcoming/Available Online

Journal
European Journal of Nutrition

StatusIn Press
FundersScottish Government
Publication date online31/10/2020
Date accepted by journal23/09/2020
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/31783
ISSN1436-6207
eISSN1436-6215