Article

The development and psychometric testing of three instruments that measure person-centred caring as three concepts - Personalization, participation and responsiveness

Citation

Strachan H, Williamson L, Elders A, Sutherland B, Hibberd C & Williams B (2020) The development and psychometric testing of three instruments that measure person-centred caring as three concepts - Personalization, participation and responsiveness. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 76 (11), pp. 3190-3203. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14484

Abstract
Aim To develop and test the psychometric properties of three instruments that measure Person‐centred Caring: as Personalization, Participation and Responsiveness. Design A three‐phase mixed methods design used two frameworks: content validity determination and quantification; consensus‐based standards for selection of health measurement instruments. Methods A narrative literature review identified the domain definition. A systematic review of instruments provided the basis for item pools, which were refined by focus groups (N = 4) of multidisciplinary staff and service users (N = 25) and cognitive interviews (N = 11) with service users. Scale content validity indexes were calculated. Three cross‐sectional surveys were conducted between April 2015 and June 2016. The instruments' psychometric properties tested included factor structure, internal consistency and construct validity. Convergent validity was tested, hypothesizing that: Personalization related to relational empathy; Participation related to empowerment; and Responsiveness related to trust. Results Scale content validity indexes were ≥0.96 in all instruments. Response rates were 24% (N = 191), 15% (N = 108) and 19% (N = 124). Two factors were revealed for the Personalization and Responsiveness instruments and one factor for the Participation instrument. All had acceptable: reliability (Cronbach's Alpha >0.7); construct validity (>50%); and convergent validity (Spearman's correlation coefficient >0.25, p < 0.05). Conclusion This study composed definitions and instruments that reflect the multidisciplinary teams' caring behaviours, which have acceptable reliability and validity in the community population. Further psychometric testing of Participation and Responsiveness instruments should be undertaken with a larger sample. Impact The instruments can be used to monitor the variability of multidisciplinary teams' caring behaviours; research effective interventions to improve caring behaviours; and increase understanding of the impact of caring on health outcomes.

Keywords
caring; empathy; instrument development; nursing; patient participation; patient‐centred care; quality improvement; surveys and questionnaires

Journal
Journal of Advanced Nursing: Volume 76, Issue 11

StatusPublished
Publication date30/11/2020
Publication date online31/08/2020
Date accepted by journal26/06/2020
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/31627
PublisherWiley
ISSN0309-2402
eISSN1365-2648