Article

Risk and enabling environments in sport: Systematic doping as harm reduction

Citation

Henning A, McLean K, Andreasson J & Dimeo P (2020) Risk and enabling environments in sport: Systematic doping as harm reduction. International Journal of Drug Policy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2020.102897

Abstract
Doping and the use of performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) are often considered and discussed as a separate issue from other types of substance use, by sporting bodies, politicians, the media, and athletes who use drugs themselves. However, perceptions and understandings of substance use in the sport and fitness world are directly related to those of substance use in the non-sport world. One way the gap between sport and non-sport substance use research can be bridged is to consider sport risk and enabling environments. Similar to non-sport contexts and drug use, it is important to analyse the environments in which doping occurs. This approach allows us to examine the dynamic interplay between risk and enabling factors, as the enabling environment shifts in response to changes produced in the risk environment, and vice versa. There are models of sport environments that have proven effective at both enabling doping by athletes and reducing harms to athletes: systematic doping. This article will use secondary literature in order to review and analyse known cases of systematic doping through the risk and enabling environment frameworks. We argue that these systems responded to anti-doping in ways that protected athletes from the risk factors established by anti-doping policy and that athletes suffered most when these systems were revealed, exposing athletes to the full range of doping harms. Further, we argue that risks within these systems (i.e. extortion, bullying) resulted from the broader prohibitive sport environment that forces doping underground and allows such abuses to occur.

Keywords
Risk environment; Doping; Sport; Harm reduction

Notes
Output Status: Forthcoming/Available Online

Journal
International Journal of Drug Policy

StatusIn Press
FundersWorld Anti-Doping Agency
Publication date online04/08/2020
Date accepted by journal30/07/2020
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/31528
PublisherElsevier BV
ISSN0955-3959