Pihlaja K, Kivelä H, Vainiotalo P & Steele WV (2020) Enthalpies of Combustion and Formation of Severely Crowded Methyl-Substituted 1,3-dioxanes. The Magnitudes of 2,4- and 4,6-diaxial Me,Me-Interactions and the Chair-2,5-twist Energy Difference. Molecules, 25 (12), Art. No.: 2762. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25122762
Enthalpies of combustion of 2,2-trans-4,6- (1) and 4,4,6,6-tetramethyl- (2) and 2,4,4,6,6- (3) and 2,2,4,4,6-pentamethyl-1,3-dioxanes (4) were determined to estimate their enthalpies of formation in the gas phase. By comparing the latter with the corresponding enthalpies estimated based on the various bond–bond interactions allowed to determine the chair–2,5-twist energy difference (ΔHCT = 29.8 kJ mol–1) for 1 since C-13 shift correlations indicate that it escapes to the 2,5-twist form where the 2-methyl groups are isoclinal and 4- and 6-methyl groups pseudoequatorial to avoid syn-axial interactions. Compounds 2 and 3 in turn give the values 21.0 and 21.6 kJ mol–1 for the 4,6-diaxial Me,Me-interaction. Finally compound 4, which retains the chair conformation to avoid pseudoaxial interactions in the twist forms gives the value 19.5 kJ mol–1 for the 2,4-diaxial Me,Me-interaction indicating that its chair form appears to be somewhat deformed.
crowded 1,3-dioxanes; enthalpies of combustion; enthalpies of formation; chair-2,5-twist energy difference; syn-axial Me,Me-interactions
Molecules: Volume 25, Issue 12