Beaumont PR (2020) Judgments Convention: Application to Governments. Netherlands International Law Review, 67 (1), p. 121–137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40802-020-00163-6
The Hague Judgments Convention 2019 makes the classic distinction between private law matters within its scope (civil or commercial matters) and public law matters outside its scope. It also follows the same position in relation to State immunity used in the Hague Choice of Court Convention 2005 (see Art. 2(5) in 2019 and 2(6) in 2005). The innovative parts of the 2019 Convention relate to the exclusions from scope in Article 2 relating to the armed forces, law enforcement activities and unilateral debt restructuring. Finally, in Article 19, the Convention creates a new declaration system permitting States to widen the exclusion from scope to some private law judgments concerning a State, or a State agency or a natural person acting for the State or a Government agency. This article gives guidance on the correct Treaty interpretation of all these matters taking full account of the work of the Hague Informal Working Group dealing with the application of the Convention to Governments and the other relevant supplementary means of interpretation referred to in Article 32 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties.
Civil or commercial matters; Public law; Armed forces; Law enforcement agencies; Unilateral sovereign debt restructuring; State immunity; Declarations; Reciprocity
Netherlands International Law Review: Volume 67, Issue 1
|Publication date online||01/04/2020|
|Date accepted by journal||01/04/2020|