Article

Influence of Fish Oil-Derived n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Changes in Body Composition and Muscle Strength During Short-Term Weight Loss in Resistance-Trained Men

Details

Citation

Philpott JD, Bootsma NJ, Rodriguez-Sanchez N, Hamilton DL, MacKinlay E, Dick J, Mettler S, Galloway SD, Tipton KD & Witard OC (2019) Influence of Fish Oil-Derived n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Changes in Body Composition and Muscle Strength During Short-Term Weight Loss in Resistance-Trained Men. Frontiers in Nutrition, 6, Art. No.: 102. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2019.00102

Abstract
Background: A detrimental consequence of diet-induced weight loss, common in athletes who participate in weight cutting sports, is muscle loss. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) exhibit a protective effect on the loss of muscle tissue during catabolic situations such as injury-simulated leg immobilization. This study aimed to investigate the influence of dietary n-3PUFA supplementation on changes in body composition and muscle strength following short-term diet-induced weight loss in resistance-trained men. Methods: Twenty resistance-trained young (23 ± 1 years) men were randomly assigned to a fish oil group that supplemented their diet with 4 g n-3PUFA, 18 g carbohydrate, and 5 g protein (FO) or placebo group containing an equivalent carbohydrate and protein content (CON) over a 6 week period. During weeks 1–3, participants continued their habitual diet. During week 4, participants received all food items to control energy balance and a macronutrient composition of 50% carbohydrate, 35% fat, and 15% protein. During weeks 5 and 6, participants were fed an energy-restricted diet equivalent to 60% habitual energy intake. Body composition and strength were measured during weeks 1, 4, and 6. Results: The decline in total body mass (FO = −3.0 ± 0.3 kg, CON = −2.6 ± 0.3 kg), fat free mass (FO = −1.4 ± 0.3 kg, CON = −1.2 ± 0.3 kg) and fat mass (FO = −1.4 ± 0.2 kg, CON = −1.3 ± 0.3 kg) following energy restriction was similar between groups (all p > 0.05; d: 0.16–0.39). Non-dominant leg extension 1 RM increased (6.1 ± 3.4%) following energy restriction in FO (p < 0.05, d = 0.29), with no changes observed in CON (p > 0.05, d = 0.05). Dominant leg extension 1 RM tended to increase following energy restriction in FO (p = 0.09, d = 0.29), with no changes in CON (p > 0.05, d = 0.06). Changes in leg press 1 RM, maximum voluntary contraction and muscular endurance following energy restriction were similar between groups (p > 0.05, d = 0.05). Conclusion: Any possible improvements in muscle strength during short-term weight loss with n-3PUFA supplementation are not related to the modulation of FFM in resistance-trained men.

Keywords
omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; energy restriction; fat-free mass; fat mass; performance; athletes

Journal
Frontiers in Nutrition: Volume 6

StatusPublished
FundersSmartFish
Publication date31/07/2019
Publication date online16/07/2019
Date accepted by journal20/06/2019
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1893/29971
PublisherFrontiers Media SA
eISSN2296-861X

People (4)

People

Mr Niels Bootsma
Mr Niels Bootsma

PhD Researcher, Sport

Mr James Dick
Mr James Dick

Technical Manager

Professor Stuart Galloway
Professor Stuart Galloway

Professor, Sport

Dr Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez
Dr Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez

Lecturer in Physiology and Nutrition, Sport

Projects (1)