Swinburn BA, Kraak VI, Allender S, Atkins VJ, Baker PI, Bogard JR, Brinsden H, Calvillo A, De Schutter O, Devarajan R, Ezzati M, Friel S, Goenka S, Hammond RA & Hastings G (2019) The Global Syndemic of Obesity, Undernutrition, and Climate Change: The Lancet Commission report. Lancet, 393 (10173), pp. 791-846. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736%2818%2932822-8
Malnutrition in all its forms, including obesity, undernutrition, and other dietary risks, is the leading cause of poor health globally. In the near future, the health effects of climate change will considerably compound these health challenges. Climate change can be considered a pandemic because of its sweeping effects on the health of humans and the natural systems we depend on (ie, planetary health). These three pandemics—obesity, undernutrition, and climate change—represent The Global Syndemic that affects most people in every country and region worldwide. They constitute a syndemic, or synergy of epidemics, because they co-occur in time and place, interact with each other to produce complex sequelae, and share common underlying societal drivers. This Commission recommends comprehensive actions to address obesity within the context of The Global Syndemic, which represents the paramount health challenge for humans, the environment, and our planet in the 21st century.
Additional co-authors: Prof Corinna Hawkes PhD, Mario Herrero PhD, Prof Peter S Hovmand PhD, Prof Mark Howden PhD, Lindsay M Jaacks PhD, Ariadne B Kapetanaki PhD, Matt Kasman PhD, Prof Harriet V Kuhnlein PhD, Prof Shiriki K Kumanyika PhD, Prof Bagher Larijani MD, Tim Lobstein PhD, Michael W Long PhD, Victor K R Matsudo MD, Susanna D H Mills PhD, Gareth Morgan PhD, Alexandra Morshed, Patricia M Nece JD, Prof An Pan PhD, David W Patterson, Gary Sacks PhD, Meera Shekar PhD, Geoff L Simmons, Warren Smit PhD, Ali Tootee PhD, Stefanie Vandevijvere PhD, Wilma E Waterlander PhD, Luke Wolfenden PhD, Prof William H Dietz MD
Lancet: Volume 393, Issue 10173