Citation Torati LS, Taggart JB, Varela ES, Araripe J, Wehner S & Migaud H (2019) Genetic diversity and structure in Arapaima gigas populations from Amazon and Araguaia-Tocantins river basins. BMC Genetics, 20 (1), Art. No.: 13. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12863-018-0711-y
Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822) is the largest freshwater scaled fish in the world, and an emerging species for tropical aquaculture development. Conservation of the species, and the expansion of aquaculture requires the development of genetic tools to study polymorphism, differentiation, and stock structure. This study aimed to investigate genomic polymorphism through ddRAD sequencing, in order to identify a panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to simultaneously assess genetic diversity and structure in wild (from rivers Amazon, Solimões, Tocantins and Araguaia) and captive populations.
Compared to many other teleosts, the degree of polymorphism in A. gigas was low with only 2.3% of identified RAD-tags (135 bases long) containing SNPs. A panel of 393 informative SNPs was identified and screened across the five populations. Higher genetic diversity indices (number of polymorphic loci and private alleles, Shannon’s Index and HO) were found in populations from the Amazon and Solimões, intermediate levels in Tocantins and Captive, and very low levels in the Araguaia population. These results likely reflect larger population sizes from less urbanized environments in the Amazon basin compared to Araguaia. Populations were significantly differentiated with pairwise FST values ranging from 0.086 (Amazon × Solimões) to 0.556 (Amazon × Araguaia). Mean pairwise relatedness among individuals was significant in all populations (P