Okeke-Ogbuafor N, Gray TS & Stead SM (2018) Perceptions of the existence and causes of structural violence in Ogoni communities, Nigeria. Journal of Contemporary African Studies, 36 (2), pp. 229-244. https://doi.org/10.1080/02589001.2018.1437256
This article explores the perceptions of Ogoni people about the existence and causes of structural violence in their communities. It relies heavily on qualitative data collected from five oil-rich and three oil-poor Ogoni communities, between February and May 2014, during which 200 open-ended survey questionnaires were administered and 189 were returned. Three focus group discussions and 69 key informant interviews were also conducted. The findings of the article are that structural violence can be found in Ogoniland; it is manifested in both visible and invisible forms; it is blamed by elites on exogenous factors, but by the disadvantaged on both exogenous and endogenous factors; and it will only be eliminated by reducing inequality and increasing democratisation.
Structural violence; endogenous; exogenous; visible and invisible forms of violence
Journal of Contemporary African Studies: Volume 36, Issue 2