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A high quality assembly of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) genome reveals the structure of two sex determination regions

Citation
Conte MA, Gammerdinger WJ, Bartie K, Penman D & Kocher TD (2017) A high quality assembly of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) genome reveals the structure of two sex determination regions, BMC Genomics, 18 (1), Art. No.: 341.

Abstract
Background 

Tilapias are the second most farmed fishes in the world and a sustainable source of food. Like many other fish, tilapias are sexually dimorphic and sex is a commercially important trait in these fish. In this study, we developed a significantly improved assembly of the tilapia genome using the latest genome sequencing methods and show how it improves the characterization of two sex determination regions in two tilapia species. 
Results 
A homozygous clonal XX female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was sequenced to 44X coverage using Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) SMRT sequencing. Dozens of candidate de novo assemblies were generated and an optimal assembly (contig NG50 of 3.3Mbp) was selected using principal component analysis of likelihood scores calculated from several paired-end sequencing libraries. Comparison of the new assembly to the previous O. niloticus genome assembly reveals that recently duplicated portions of the genome are now well represented. The overall number of genes in the new assembly increased by 27.3%, including a 67% increase in pseudogenes. The new tilapia genome assembly correctly represents two recentvasagene duplication events that have been verified with BAC sequencing. At total of 146Mbp of additional transposable element sequence are now assembled, a large proportion of which are recent insertions. Large centromeric satellite repeats are assembled and annotated in cichlid fish for the first time. Finally, the new assembly identifies the long-range structure of both a ~9Mbp XY sex determination region on LG1 in O. niloticus, and a ~50Mbp WZ sex determination region on LG3 in the related species O. aureus
Conclusions 
This study highlights the use of long read sequencing to correctly assemble recent duplications and to characterize repeat-filled regions of the genome. The study serves as an example of the need for high quality genome assemblies and provides a framework for identifying sex determining genes in tilapia and related fish species.

Keywords
Genome assembly; Pacific Biosciences SMRT sequencing; Transposable elements; Gene duplication; Sex chromosome; Sex determination; Aquaculture Tilapia

StatusPublished
AuthorsConte Matthew A, Gammerdinger William J, Bartie Kerry, Penman David, Kocher Thomas D
Publication date02/05/2017
Publication date online02/05/2017
Date accepted by journal25/04/2017
PublisherBioMed Central
ISSN 1471-2164
LanguageEnglish

Journal
bmc Genomics: Volume 18, Issue 1 (2017)

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