Chapter (in Edited Book) ()
Penman D & McAndrew B (2000) Genetics for the management and improvement of cultured tilapias. In: Beveridge MCM, McAndrew BJ (ed.). Tilapias: biology and exploitation. Fish and Fisheries Series, 25, Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 227-266.
Tilapia were first farmed experimentally in Kenya in 1924 (Oreochromis spilurus niger) and in 1937 in Zaire (Oreochromis nyasalapia macrochir and Tilapia rendalli) (reviewed by Chimits, 1955, 1957). The main period of expansion in Africa was in the 1950s and 1960s as the full potential of this group of fish for natural stocking and culture was realized (reviewed by Balarin and Hatton, 1979). At about the same time, tilapia were gaining importance in Asia after the introduction of O. mossambicus into Java (Indonesia) pre-1939 (Chimits, 1955) and subsequent introductions from there to many other countries (reviewed by Pullin, 1988). In Africa, farming of tilapia developed but despite the many beneficial characteristics, problems associated with excessive reproduction in ponds and the small size of the fish produced resulted in disillusionment. In Asia and Israel farmers persisted with species more suited for culture. With increased understanding of their biology and genetics, allied with improvements in management, tilapia have become very important farmed species. O. niloticus and certain hybrids have now become the major cultured tilapia.
|Editor||Beveridge MCM, McAndrew BJ|
|Authors||Penman David, McAndrew Brendan|
|Title of series||Fish and Fisheries Series|
|Number in series||25|
|Publisher||Kluwer Academic Publishers|
|Place of publication||Dordrecht, The Netherlands|