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Psychological, surgical, and sociodemographic predictors of pain outcomes after breast cancer surgery: A population-based cohort study

Bruce J, Thornton AJ, Powell R, Johnston M, Wells M, Heys SD, Thompson AM, Smith WC, Chambers WA & Scott NW (2014) Psychological, surgical, and sociodemographic predictors of pain outcomes after breast cancer surgery: A population-based cohort study, Pain, 155 (2), pp. 232-243.

For the Recovery Study Group

Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is a common postoperative adverse event affecting up to half of women undergoing breast cancer surgery, yet few epidemiological studies have prospectively investigated the role of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative risk factors for pain onset and chronicity. We prospectively investigated preoperative sociodemographic and psychological factors, intraoperative clinical factors, and acute postoperative pain in a prospective cohort of 362 women undergoing surgery for primary breast cancer. Intraoperative nerve handling (division or preservation) of the intercostobrachial nerve was recorded. At 4 and 9 months after surgery, incidence of chronic painful symptoms not present preoperatively was 68% and 63%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that multiple psychological factors and nerve division was associated with chronic pain at 4 and 9 months. In a multivariate model, independent predictors of CPSP at 4 months included younger age and acute postoperative pain (odds ratio [OR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 1.60), whereas preoperative psychological robustness (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99), a composite variable comprising high dispositional optimism, high positive affect, and low emotional distress, was protective. At 9 months, younger age, axillary node clearance (OR 2.97, 95% CI 1.09 to 8.06), and severity of acute postoperative pain (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) were predictive of pain persistence. Of those with CPSP, 25% experienced moderate to severe pain and 40% were positive on Douleur Neuropathique 4 and Self-Complete Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scales. Overall, a high proportion of women report painful symptoms, altered sensations, and numbness in the upper body within the first 9 months after resectional breast surgery and cancer treatment.

Breast cancer; Chronic postsurgical pain; Nerve division; Postoperative pain; Psychology; Surgery

AuthorsBruce Julie, Thornton Alison J, Powell Rachael, Johnston Marie, Wells Mary, Heys Steven D, Thompson Alastair M, Smith W Cairns, Chambers W Alastair, Scott Neil W
Publication date02/2014
Publication date online04/10/2013
ISSN 0304-3959

Pain: Volume 155, Issue 2 (2013)

© University of Stirling FK9 4LA Scotland UK • Telephone +44 1786 473171 • Scottish Charity No SC011159
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