Axel studied geophysics and planetary physics in Karlsruhe and Münster, Germany. After a JSPS postdoctoral fellowship at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan, supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, he had a brief stint as an instrument manager on ESA's Rosetta space mission, based at the University of Cologne. In 2004, he moved to the Open University as part of the Cassini-Huygens team, investigating Saturn's moon Titan. Axel has since been working on the analysis of space mission data and supporting science. In 2018, he joined the University of Stirling, where ices are the focus of his research. Axel is particularly interested in the thermophysics of ices and regolith - preferably a mixture of both: icy regolith. He also likes ice cream.